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Digital Discovery & e-Evidence
E-Discovery Glossary
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Active Data  

Data currently displayed on a computer screen.


See Software Application.


A copy of data on a computer drive, or on a portion of a drive, maintained for historical reference.


A memorandum, letter, spreadsheet, or any other electronic document appended to another document or email.

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A copy of inactive data, intended for use in the restoration of data lost to catastrophic failure of system memory.

Boolean Search  

The term "Boolean" refers to a system of logic developed by an early computer pioneer, George Boole. In Boolean searching, an "and" operator between two words results in a search for documents containing both of the words. An "or" operator between two words creates a search for documents containing either of the target words. A "not" operator between two words creates a search result containing the first word but excluding the second.

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A form of high-speed memory used to temporarily store frequently accessed information; once the information is stored, it can be retrieved quickly from memory rather than from the hard drive.

Case De-Duplication  

Retains only single copies of documents per case. For example, if an identical document resides with Mr. A, Mr. B and Mr. C, only the first occurrence of the file will be saved (Mr. A's). Contrast with custodian de-duplication and production de-duplication.


In operating systems that use a file allocation table (FAT) architecture, the smallest unit of storage space required for data written to a drive. Also called an allocation unit.


A technology for storing data in fewer bits, it makes data smaller so less disk space is needed to represent the same information. Compression programs like WinZip and UNIX compress are valuable to network users because they save both time and bandwidth. Data compression is also widely used in backup utilities, spreadsheet applications, and database management systems.


See Data Custodian.

Custodian De-Duplication  

Culls a document if multiple copies of that document reside within the same custodian's data set. For example, if Mr. A and Mr. B each have a copy of a specific document, and Mr. C has two copies, the system will maintain one copy each for Mr. A, Mr. B, and Mr. C. Contrast with case de-duplication and production de-duplication.

Customer-Added Metadata  

Data or work product created by a user while reviewing a document. For example, annotation text of a document or subjective coding information. Contrast with vendor-added metadata.

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Featured Articles

Proactive Solutions: The Next Generation of eDiscovery?
By Herbert L. Roitblat, Ph.D.
December 2005 |

Trends in Litigation
By Morgan O'Rourke
December 2005 | Risk Management Magazine

Civil Justice Reform - Legal Service Providers
Electronic Discovery: The Effect of The Proposed Amendments
December 2005 | Metropolitan Corporate Counsel

Ontrack Data Recovery Announces 2005 Top 10 List of Strangest (and Funniest) Data Disasters
Unbelievable but True Tales of Data Disaster and Remarkable Feats of Data Recovery
05 December 2005 |

Electronic Discovery Primer for Judges
By David K. Isom
Federal Courts Law Review - 2005 Fed. Cts. L. Rev. 1

Review Documents the Right Way in Discovery
By Dionne Carney Rainey
28 November 2005 |

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